Overall, Madura, including one of the rural poor in East Java province, Unlike Java, Madura land less fertile enough to be a place of agriculture. Others are limited economic opportunities has resulted in unemployment and poverty. These factors have resulted in long-term emigration from Madura so many people today do not live in Madura Madura. Madurese population, including participants of the transmigration program ever.
Subsistence agriculture (small scale for survival) is the main economic activity. Maize and cassava are the main cultivation crops in subsistence farming in Madura, scattered in many small land. Cattle are also an important part of agricultural economy in this island, and provide additional income for farm families is important for activities other than cattle karapan. Small-scale fisheries are also important in the subsistence economy there.
Plants most commercial cultivation in Madura is tobacco. Land on the island of Madura is helping make important producer of tobacco and cloves for the domestic cigarette industry. Since the history of Indonesia (1800-1940) Dutch colonial era, Madura has also been a major producer and exporter of Sodium chloride (salt).
Bangkalan | Bangkalan which is located at the western end of Madura has undergone industrialization since the 1980s. This area is easily accessible from Surabaya, Indonesia's second largest city, and thus plays a suburb for commuters to Surabaya, and as an industrial location and the services needed, close to Surabaya. Suramadu bridge that has been operating since June 10, 2009, is expected to increase interactions with regional economic Bangkalan area.