Madhura, Basa Mathura
Spoken on the island of Madura, Sapudi Island, north shore east of Java, Singapore
Number of speakers 14 million (1995)
Madura language is the language Madurese. Madurese language speakers has approximately 15 million people, and concentrated in Madura Island, East End of Java or the area known as the horseshoe area stretching from Pasuruan, Surabaya, Malang, to Banyuwangi, Kangean Islands, Islands Masalembo, until the island of Borneo.
On the island of Kalimantan, Madura community centered in the region of Sambas, Pontianak, Bengkayang and Ketapang, West Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, while they concentrate in areas of East Kotawaringin, Palangkaraya and Kapuas. But most young people in the region of Madura had lost the mastery of their mother language.
However, due to unrest among the people in Kalimantan (Sambas and Sampit), a party of the people displaced Madurese return to ancestral land, and they still hope to be able to return despite the Dayak people of Kalimantan bertegas especially not to accept them back.
Madurese language is a subsidiary branch of the Austronesian Malayo-Polynesian branch, so that has similarities with other regional languages in Indonesia.
Madurese language heavily influenced by the Javanese, Malays, Bugis, Tionghoa and others. Javanese influence is felt in the form of a hierarchy system of language as a result of the occupation in Mataram on the island of Madura. There are also many words in this language which is rooted in Indonesian or even with the Minangkabau Malays, but certainly with a different pronunciation.
* Bhila (read: bhileh e schwa) is equal to if = whenever
* Oreng = person
* Tadha '= no (almost the same as in the word tadak Melayu Pontianak)
* Dhimma (read: dimmah) = where? (Almost similar to DIMA in Minangkabau)
* = Same as the questions asked
* Cakalan = cob (almost similar to Bugis words: tuna, but not nasal)
* Onggu = really, really (really the word)
* Kamma (read: kammah similar to the word kama in Minangkabau) = where?
Madurese language has a unique pronunciation system. So unique that people outside the Madurese who try mempelajarinyapun experiencing difficulties, particularly in terms of pronunciation earlier.
Madurese language pronunciation has snapped and is pressed mainly on the letters b, d, j, g, JH, dh and bh or the consonant cluster such as hh, dd and bb. However, this emphasis often occurs in the middle syllable.
While for the vocal tract, known Madurese language other than a letter a schwa strong. Other vowel system in the language of Madura is i, u, e and o.
Madurese language as languages of Java and Bali are also familiar with the language level, but only divided into three levels namely:
* Ja '- yes (same as ngoko)
* Engghi-Enthen (together with Madya)
* Engghi-Bunthen (same as the Krama)
* Berempa 'arghena paona? : Mangganya at what price? (Ja'-yes)
* Saponapa argheneppon paona? : Mangganya at what price? (Engghi-Bunthen)
Madurese language dialects
Madurese language dialects also have spread throughout the region. On the island of Madura in galibnya there are several dialects such as:
* Dialect Bangkalan
* Dialect Sampang
* Dialect Pamekasan
* Dialect Sumenep, and
* Dialect Kangean
Dialect which was used as reference standards Sumenep Madurese language is a dialect, because Sumenep in the past is the cultural center of the kingdom and Madura. While the other is a dialect of rural dialects which gradually blended along with the mobilization that occurred among people in Madura. For Java, these dialects are often mixed with the Java language so that they often prefer to be called as Pendalungan than as Madura. Communities on the island of Java, including Situbondo area, Bondowoso, Probolinggo and generally controlled the eastern part of Java language in addition to Madura.
The example in the case of pronoun you:
* Be'en words commonly used in Madura. But the word is used in Sumenep be'na.
* While the word for you kakeh Bangkalan commonly used in eastern and Sampang.
* Heddeh and Seddeh Bangkalan used in rural areas.
Specific Dialects Kangean, this dialect is a splinter from Madura, who because of different language to language is often considered not part of Madura, Madurese community in particular by the mainland.
* Akoh: I (sengko 'in the language of Madura mainland)
* Kaoh: ye (be'en or be'na in Madura mainland)
* Berra ': west (berre' with e schwa in the language of Madura mainland)
* MorrAh: cheap (in the language of Madura modhe mainland)
Language Bawean suspected as kreolisasi Madurese language, because the words are essentially derived from this language, but mixed in with the words British and the Malays and Javanese Bawean because many people who work or migrate to Malaysia and Singapore, the language has dialect Bawean language of each region or village usually have their own languages and dialects such as language dialect Bawean Leaves, Kumalasa Dialect, Dialect Dialect Diponggo Pudakit as well. This language is spoken on the island of Bawean, Gresik, Malaysia, and Singapore. In the last two places known as Boyanese Bawean language. Intonation Bawean people easily recognizable among the speakers of Madura. Differences in the two languages can be likened to the difference between Indonesian and Malaysian language, the similar but even though each can understand his point. Examples:
* Ezion or ehon = I (sengkok / engkok in the language of Madura)
* Kalaaken = fetch (kalaagghi in the language of Madura)
* Trimakasih = thank you (salengkong / sakalangkong / kalangkong in Bahasa
* Brothers = front (brothers meaning in the language of Madura